ArcGis Tutorial - How to create shape files, labels and spatial reference

ArcGis Tutorial – How to create shape files, labels and spatial reference



This ArcMap 10.4.1 tutorial will demonstrate how to set spatial references, create new shapefiles layers, use intelligent labels by creating queries. This ArcGis tutorial is for new users who just started learning ArcMap. The tutorial discusses how to edit the database tables and how to calculate some geometric parameters.
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hello everyone so today I'm going to create a new arch is tutorial I'm using the latest version of ArcGIS which is a ten point four point so in this tutorial I'm going to discuss how to create a layers how to specify the spatial reference and then how to use the different tools that arc map provides us and basically try to labor the layer as well and using some queries so this tutorial a is targeted for beginners people who probably just started looking at arcmap desktop using the newest version of arcgis so first of all what i'm going to start with is looking at the table of contents so you can see here we have a set of layers but it's empty so we have no layers at the moment in order to create the first layer let's say we would like to create a map or a polygon and to specify the boundary of a certain area we can easily go to catalog and then in folder connection we can create a new shapefile so the skeleton of arcmap a starts with shape files which contains a database information so if we create a new shapefile you can see that you first of all you can call it so let's say we have here a boundary it could be the boundary of a certain area a boundary of a park let's say in a geographical area or a district etc and then you can look at the feature so what features arcmap provides us it provides points so we can create layers that contains single points or polylines so layers that contain lines which could represent for example railways pipelines or two systems etc it can as well give us polygons polygons could we could create like boundaries maybe maps etc as well so I'm not going to discuss the multi-point in the multi patch at the moment these are the three main feature types that we can have from arcmap so I'm going to start first with a polygon all right before we continue and add this new shapefile we have to specify the spatial reference of the polygon in order to understand where does it exactly fit on the you know on on the planet basically our on on on the map so we go to edit in here and then we know that ArcGIS already has embedded geographical coordinate system which you can choose from so you can see here different countries well we can go to first because I'm now located in the United Kingdom so I would go to Europe and then I will try to find the British coordinate system say a novel so I found it in a projected coordinate systems under national grids and if we go to Europe then you can find the British national grid in here so the British national grid it gives basically the boundary of your National Grid based on a certain standard so you can see here the authorities here EPC SG I press ok and then another ok so we set up now our spatial reference and we've created the first shapefile as you can see immediately we have a our spec our shapefile under the layers so this is the first layer we have created so let's just set up our scale so let's go to when two to ten thousand and then if we go to a normal x and y so the x and y coordinates which we can use here on this tab we'll usually as a coordinate system that is used in the UK that gives you a certain location on the map so let's say if I'm looking for the cinema on the High Street in High Wycombe I can get the X and y coordinate for that location and I can go to here so I'm going to just provide a random x and y so for three five six six seven and then I can go to maybe so let me change that I'm going to use a discord and this is for the latitude so x and y make sure that the unit is in meter let's just do it again because we have to specify that vu so the X is five four eight one three zero and the Y is two five five zero six one it's just completely a random coordinate and I can assume to that place okay so now we have specified our scale I'll go to one two one thousand and we have specified our area of concern so how do we start creating a boundary now our GIS have like an existing library that we can use to put a map on the screen we can use that by so if we can add a new data file from the ArcGIS online database if you want to do that you can easily go to add data and then add data from ArcGIS online and you can choose different layers that are of your interest so for example we can have you know like a raster tile layer showing the road names the areas etc these are existing maps that you can find them online which you can embed within your arc GIS layers so these layers contain shape files that have already been saved on the ArcGIS online database so we can add that or what we can do is really it's the easiest way and the best way to do is save some data some GIS database from certain websites I'll give you like a name or two maybe to go and search for these databases that are a few consent so if you would like to have like I don't know a database for roads and shapefiles for roads you can go and save them on your desktop on your hard drive and then import it into your document this way it would be quicker to load the GIS layer instead of depending on the online server which sometimes could crash your software if especially if you have a slow connection so I'm gonna give you now a couple of well I'm gonna give you probably one website where you can go and download some existing layers so one of these website is stat Cellcom where you can go and search different kinds of shape files or maps which you can download so for example here you can download the OSM boundaries for different administrative levels etc or you can download the OpenStreetMap as well so let me just have a look in here so if you go to the section where it's a download country shapefile map you can go down to the United Kingdom for example and download it so another website as well we can use is Open Street Map data com so if you go there and you go for data lanten polygons you can download the shape files for the countries polygons basically so I'm going to download this and I will show you how to import it into your arc map layer so I'm gonna load this and then it will come okay so now I've downloaded the shape files in order to import them into my GIS layer all I need to do is go to folder connection and then I look for the folder where I saved them so if we go to land or is it time we just see make sure if you've done something or you change something in your favor fold connection I try to always do refresh it on rjs so that you can see the new folders that were added so you can see then the land polygons folder and I can just import it into here so geographic coordinate system so the the shape file has already a spatial reference we can create transformations so the transformations we can do is depending on what spatial reference have we chosen so in the country system so in Europe system we have the British national grid so shall we do that let's go to the so if in order to have the same spatial reference so we can do is import this spatial reference of our shapefile that we've created which is a British national coordinate system so we can go to import and then go to the file where we saved our shapefile and here we go so we have the British national grid we press ok and we transform this into British national grid ok and close so as you can see that the land polygon layer is now displayed on the screen and we can see the United Kingdom's map just few things to talk about in the order of the layers in the table of contents so let's suppose we have two boundary layers if we put the land polygons beneath the boundary layer that what will happen is if then the boundary layer will will be on top of that one and it will hide it if it's bigger than that one so in order to have an ordered display on the map we need to put them here as well in order so if the land polygon is above the boundary and the boundary is a very small area then it's gonna higher it's gonna you know cover the boundary layer and will hide it so let's have a look now how can we create new and you know the new features within the boundary layer that we've created so the first step is to you need the editor so in order to use the editor we go to customize toolbars and editor here we have the editor now this is the editor tab before I continue I'm gonna just hide the land polygon layer because it's slowing down the software because it does contain a huge amount of information in the database and I will show you how to look at the database as well so as you can see if you go to open attribute table it shows you the IDS of all the polygons and we're talking here about five hundred and sixty nine thousand and five hundred and fifty for a polygon entry within this shapefile which is a huge amount of data alright so now let's just continue what we would like to do is use the new boundary shapefile that we created and to create a new boundary for example so we go to editor start editing and we select the shapefile we created which is boundary and press ok so once we do that we continue and then you can see that there the create feature window appears in here and you clear click on the boundary and then this will give you construction tools so you can use circles ellipses and ellipse or rectangular or polygon so I would choose a polygon and then I'll start defining my area of concern once we're done we press escape okay I've I want to delete that last section so I'll click on that and delete it so and you can see that you've created your boundary in here now the next step is to make sure to save your edit so we save edit and then we have a new boundary on our GIS layer in order to stop editing we click on stop editing and nothing can change that entry now now in order to see how is this related to a database you go to write to boundary and open attribute table and you can see that there is only one entry that we've made in here when the entry has the shape so what type of entry it is it's a polygon and it has an ID what we can do is we can try and elaborate with this database create different fields and categories maybe for labeling them so what I'm going to do here is teach you how to use the table in order to create new fields so all you can do is all you all you have to do sorry is just to click in here and then add a new field you can give it a name so let's say we can give it a boundary name the type would be a text and you can define the lengths of the tag so in here it's 50 press ok okay so you can see in the name you can't just have a space between the two words so you have to create only one word thing press yes and you can see now we have created a new field so I and we can create another field as well so let's say so sorry add field and let's say we would like to check the area of each boundary I create sup postcode area and I'll keep it as a short integer and then in here we can automatically find the area by going to calculate geometry press yes and then you can see you can you can find the area the parameter the x-coordinate of the center or the centroid of this boundary and the y coordinate of the centroid of this boundary so I'll calculate the I'll use the area and I'll choose the unit s square meter and I press ok so in order to have this option used we need to make sure that the field is has a as type as a floating type instead of integer or short integer so once I've done that or you could all you need to do is calculate geometry choose the area use unit and press ok and it will appear so so the area of this boundary is twenty eight thousand nine hundred and fourteen square meter you can as well calculate the parameter so while we can say your parameter instead so change that and then we go to calculate geometry instead of area we calculate the parameter and the unit is meters and you can see that the parameter of this boundary is seven thousand seventy seven thousand eight hundred and ninety one meters or seventy seven kilometers so if we use the option of calculate geometry or field calculator we can edit the table with add the need of going to the editor but in order to manually edit the table we have to activate the editor and the way we do that is we go back to editor start editing and we choose the boundary layer press ok and now we go back again to open attribute table and now we can add a manually a new data so the boundary name let's say I don't know Green Park okay so all you need to do is now save edit and stop editing so we have the Green Park and boundary name we've already calculated the parameter of that boundary and it has an automatic ID now you can create all sorts of fields to the table press close now let's try to create a new boundary so we start at it create a new boundary press Continue and we go to the create features choose another polygon let's say it's at the something like that here we go so I'll save the edit and I'll stop the edit so we have a new boundary which is adjacent to the old one now let's have a look at the table what happened to the table here so it automatically created a new entry which with an F ID one and the parameter here is zero so all you need to do is just again calculate geometry we're talking here about parameters and we press ok and it automatically creates your parameters now as you can see here we can't put any entry so even if you try to write in here you can't add any entry in order to do that you need to go and activate editor again so start editor boundary okay continue and then what we can do is say let's say here I'm now – no new Gardens okay new Gardens and then I'll save the editor and I'll stop it okay or what you can do is if you start editor boundary and you use this edit tool you can press on the boundary you want which were whether this one or that one and right-click attributes and you can change the attributes from here all right so save edits and stop edits all right so now what I would like to do is create a maybe two or three more boundaries and then I try to label them so let me just go to start edit boundary continue we go to more editing sorry editing window create features boundary and polygons so I'm going to do now a new boundary here which is again adjacent today then I'll save that oops sorry we have to click the end point sir do it again one two here we go save that it I'll keep it here I'll go to attributes I'll give the boundary name a different separate name so let's say I don't know Xu shall we say maybe h1 to let's say just any random memory am I gonna spend time thinking about a exotic name so this is another boundary we can continue creating new boundaries so we go to the create feature tab polygons again and then I'll create one here save added attribute must say J oh 87 let's just make it capital at IJ or 87 we press save edits so you can see now we have one two three and four boundaries that are adjacent to each other okay so we if we go to the open attribute now we can click on the parameter calculate geometry make sure that the parameters is in chosen and we press ok so we have all the parameters here ok now we can save and stop editing we have now how do we label these ones so we would like to label them if we go to customize toolbars and then labeling there are two types of labels labeling systems so I'm going to use the first type and we'll talk about the other one later use me flex label engine once we do that now we go to the layer itself properties and then we go to labels and we click on label features in this layer and we can define classes so we can have different classes for different types of labeling so let's say we are at the default class and we would like to label the band's renamed okay now we can create an SQL query or put an expression in order to stew sorry let's create an SQL query to specify which boundaries we would like to name and which ones we would like to leave behind without labeling so if we go to SQL query we can choose the area remember the area is that is the primary name or the key name of the field parameter okay we have to should have changed that to parameter again but I know that to do that you should have deleted it so the area is the same as a parameter okay we use the parameter instead so we say that the parameter should be less than 85 solvent we can verify this the expression was successfully verified so we've put a condition for the label engine labeling engine in order to label only the boundaries that got a parameter less than 85,000 we press ok and now we choose to use the label field boundary name and we can as well add to the expression so we say get the value of the boundary name and then for example and add I don't know any wording so let's say part parks we press ok we can choose the text size or the text font so let's say we wanted that 9 and B we press apply and here you can see so the two boundaries that got a parameter less than 80 thousand 2 meters or 85 thousand meters based on our condition will be named and labeled and the other ones will be left behind you can see that it it extracted the names from the attribute table so we've got H 12 which is H as a 60 1000 meters in Pereira parameter and it got the green park which got a 77 890 77 thousand eight hundred and ninety one point six meter in parameter so we were able to label these two boundaries and using the expression in the label engine we've added a manual word to the words that we've collected from bandar name so we added the word parks alright now if we go back to up an attribute table I'm sorry if we go back to the layer and we go to properties and then to the label this is a default class we can add a new class and say class what let's just give it a name see – it doesn't matter and now we have two classes of c2 we create an SQL query instead of less than 85,000 we say bigger than 85 salad we press ok and then we can change here the color for red and if we press apply and you can see now we were able to label the two other boundaries based on the new conditions that we created so if we go back to labels we have two classes we have the default class which specify and label only the boundaries with a parameter less than 85,000 and we have the c2 class which specify and label only the parameters that are large or bigger than 85 thousand meters breasts apply we press ok and here you go we have it in here so if you go to open attribute we have your database you have the database in here and we have the layer in here so I think this is the first step in an introduction to how to use arcmap in arcgis now remember you can save the file as a dot m XD even if you do that if you don't have your GIS layers saved properly you won't be able to retrieve the data so in order to do that you have first to create data export so you export your data or feed a new shapefile and to any value once and into any folder you want so you can go to desktop for example and give it a name on the boundary and you can save it okay and it will export the database it will ask you but once it finishes if you want to add the exported data no because it's already added anyway and then now you can save your new shape view your whole document and save boundaries and then save it so now if you want to close this document and reopen it it will open with the data included in so let me just show you so I'm going to close this document and now I'm going to open the mxd file so boundaries and XD and as you can see we have the data included nothing is missing okay but if you haven't saved that cheap file and you try to open the boundries dot MXT even if you save the poundage taxi then you would end up with a missing layer in here okay so this is the first tutorial in the series I'm hoping to I hope if you like this type of videos and you would like to learn more about arcmap and arcgis I can create new tutorials as well so maybe the next tutorial will discuss how to print the maps use the maps use layers use legends how to change the symbology maybe add new features instead new kind of shape files like point shape files and line or polyline shape files and create more queries and to play around with the labeling as well so I hope you liked this video please don't forget to subscribe if you want this document and you want to download it go to my website you will find it in the description section the link you will be you'll be able to get the link from the description section and on that video alright thank you very much for watching and take care bye

20 thoughts on “ArcGis Tutorial – How to create shape files, labels and spatial reference

  1. Hi,
    Can we modify an existing shape file (Update or delete any state or district or any sort of area we have) automatically /dynamically (with out using arc map /qgis tool ) which is currently using in a project.

  2. hi thank u for this excellent tutorial. can i insert label to shapefile that the other program can show this label???

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