PhysicsFun is bringing you AMAZING SCIENCE Toys/Gadgets!
Sit back and relax. Enjoy 7 minutes of oddly satisfying scientific curiosities feauturing various engines with candles, ferrofluid toys, kinetic art that uses physics, optical illusions, various forms of dices, math toys/shapes and more mindblowing stuff!
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Turbine Convection Color Candle: a simple heat engine by designer Achille Castiglioni- rotational motion resulting from the convection of hot air due to the candle flame of a tea light. All moving parts of thin stainless steel with semitransparent colored panels. Energy transfer: chemical bonds to heat to kinetic energy of the rising air to rotational kinetic energy of the turbine.
Reflective Wind Spinner: this one translates rotating motion into a repeating expanding (or shrinking) circle. An interesting one of many ways to connect rotational motion to translational motion.
Drinking Bird Heat Engine: time lapse of 15 minutes into 15 seconds (4 cycles). Cooling by evaporation at the head leads to lower pressure in the top bulb, the dichloromethane fluid rises up the neck making the bird top heavy and the bird tips over dipping its beak and letting the fluid return to the bottom bulb. The time lapse allows a clearer picture of how the fluid rises, shifting the center of mass, and how tipping makes the glass column lift out of the fluid in the bottom allowing the pressure to equalize and letting gravity pull the fluid to return to the base. Process repeats as long as the top stays wet. So much physics in one hypnotic toy!
Tea-Light Floating Engine: a candle powered super simple steam engine. The engine is just a coil of copper tubing filled with water. Steam builds up pushing water out with an explosive jet- which then results in a vacuum in the coil which pulls more water in to repeat the process. The water expulsion is in the form of jet directed out the end of the tube whereas the refill comes back in to the tube from a larger range of angles- so on balance the engine moves opposite to the direction of the jets.
Pixelated Playing Cards: what one sees is all about the lighting with this transparent deck of cards. When backlit these poker sized cards become simply a grid of dots- reminding us that what we see not only concerns the physical properties of the perceived object, but also the location of the light source and the frequency and intensity of its emissions.
Hand Boiler: liquid-gas phase transition. The boiling point of dichloromethane is slightly below body temperature – heat from a hand increases pressure in the bottom bulb pushing the purple (dyed) liquid through the glass pipe to the top.
Hollow Mask Dragon Illusion: a concave image lighted from the bottom appears as a regular convex image via this vintage version of the hollow face illusion.
Moondrop: using magnets and Lenz’s Law to imitate free fall times on the Moon and Mars. The key to this device is the presence of neodymium magnets in the central aluminum column. When a non-magnetic metal ring moves down, the magnetic field in the center produces an electric current in the ring. The ring then temporarily becomes an electromagnet that exerts some repulsion against the center magnets slowing the ring down. The Earthdrop (blue) has the magnets removed from the column to provide comparison.
Iron Filing Field Detector: visualizing the invisible- the magnetic field lines around a dipole bar magnet. In the presence of a magnetic field, ferromagnetic materials (such as iron) temporarily become magnets.
Kaleidoscope Symmetry Physics: Two adjacent mirrors form the repeating image of a kaleidoscope, but the shape of the image is determined by the angle between the mirrors. This principle is demonstrated with three different symmetrical patterns using this beautiful set of precision teleidoscopes- angles of 36° (blue tube), 30° (green tube), and 22.5° (red tube), creating mandala stars with 5, 6, and 8 points. The angle for any symmetric star pattern of n points is just 180°/n. A teleidoscope is a kaleidoscope but with a lens on the end, such that the kaleidoscopic image is formed by whatever is put in front of it. Here the complex motion of a Gyrobi toy is used as the observation object. 🌟Thanks to Leif Colson of ColoradoScopes for this set!
Magnetic Sand Hourglass: ferromagnetic sand collects above a neodymium magnet in the wood base creating interesting patterns that reveal the magnetic field lines.
Diffraction Spectrum Candle: a thin plastic diffraction grating surrounds the flame in this rainbow producing design. The rainbow spectrum is produced not by refraction like that of a prism, but instead by diffraction, where light waves deconstructively and constuctively interfere.
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