21st Century Hackers – Documentary 2018
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people want the device that's going to make their life easier and security for the most part is is taken as a granted people just naturally assume that due diligence has been paid we're rarely is that the case trying to make the Internet secure to make it a safe place has become a billion-dollar industry it's an industry really designed to do one thing stay one step ahead of malicious hackers now you'll notice I said malicious hackers because as it turns out hackers come in different flavors white hats are the good guys black hats are the bad guys and gray hats fall somewhere in between my friend Samy Kamkar is one of the good guys I got into hacking and technology when I was around ten years old I got my first computer and my mom's to everything she had to get me this computer and first day I got it I said up the internet and you know one of the best days of my life I went online and I started searching for the x-files you know one of the best shows and I found a chat room where I could chat with people about the x-files I go into this chat room and immediately someone told me get out and I'm like what why would I get out I said no he said you have ten seconds to get out I said okay random person on the Internet stayed in the chat room and ten seconds later my computer crashed I got a blue screen ain't no idea what happened my mom spent all her money on this computer and I just freaked out I was scared that the computer was destroyed but simultaneously thought that was the coolest thing ever how do I do that hacking it was a lot different than the hacking that people associate today there was no malicious intent there was no theft it was all very very much driven by intellectual curiosity driven by that curiosity Sammy who at the time wasn't even old enough to drink figured out how to hack into MySpace a wildly popular early social media site when he was done everyone who visited his MySpace page ended up with the phrase Sammy is my hero on their MySpace page essentially it created a worm or virus and there's no way to to stop it Sammy's curiosity infected more than a million myspace users forcing myspace to take their entire site down within 24 hours my states didn't come after me but it was the government it was the la da that came after me for writing a virus ultimately I took a plea agreement where I couldn't touch a computer for three years of my life now Sammy makes a living looking for vulnerabilities in online enabled products like refrigerators cars and baby monitors everything we have has technology whether it's your garage or car or door lock even so I want to see what's a way that this system is supposed to work and what's a way that you wouldn't necessarily want it to work Sammy is a member of a new and growing international work force young white hat hackers hired to break into impenetrable systems and closed their loopholes for them I hope so company is looking to identify hard to spot vulnerabilities or bugs frequently offer cash rewards called bug bounties and like a high tech headhunter hacker one connects the talent to the task we use the term hacking but we need to stop thinking about it as something close to related to criminals it's a very very diverse community of software engineers tinkerer as hobbyist academic security researcher is Microsoft has paid a bounty to a five-year-old hacker who have I passed the parental controls on his xbox Google has done the same to a seven-year-old hacker technology bugs crop up all over the place anyone who's capable of finding them this is actually boobers bug bunny program yeah you see here we're working with a hacker called MDV and you see that he's now actively engaging with a member of the uber security team to understand the potential issue he found what's most amazing to me looking at this chain is just how friendly this conversation is absolutely it's a bit like hey I found this bug and they're like hey yeah yeah you did thanks for doing that there's some money so it's conversational this is absolutely ideal response that you want to see from a company yeah this kind of cooperation is nice to see but it wouldn't be necessary if the vulnerabilities weren't potentially serious what stops a white hat hacker from turning bad if they find a really good owner ability same thing that stops your local doctor from taking out a kidney and selling it on the black market you rely upon ethics and legal codes and people's own moral character the number of bad apples out there who would choose to use that that knowledge for malicious or criminal intent is relatively small and that's okay as long as we're prepared for them and have designed for that eventualities Prime has obviously been around with us since the dawn of civilization technology just allows normals to really automate their attacks just scale them so now you can have a guy out in Eastern Europe that is attacking someone here in the United States without any repercussions without a great deal of effort and that's what makes it so different it had been a busy morning I was answering emails and watching TV with my mom called she was going on and on about some problem with her computer and she was using words like hijacked and these crooks first I noticed that my computer is incredibly strong and then I saw this message all your files and cryptic welcome to the world of ransomware a virus that's surprisingly easy to catch usually ransomware is introduced through email this usually unsolicited email but sometimes it's the more elaborate cybercrime where someone may have manipulated an email address or someone that you know changed a letter change the punctuation mark and when you open that email and click on that link your computer is infected the virus then grabs every personal file on your computer and locks them up encrypts them with something that's actually called a key and without that encryption key everything on your computer is inaccessible gone forever unless you pay up and that's why it's called ransomware ransomware is profitable and popular because most people don't have detailed backups of their data I had all kind of photographs of my granddaughter but I didn't have extras they were the only ones but anyway it shows your clock and it says you have to pay in seven days and they wanted five hundred and I said it's Russia or Ukraine I absolutely knew it that's how I knew you have no choice it's been incredible to watch how many people are falling prey to this and how many of them are actually paying these ransoms they don't have to get a ransom for everyone but if just 10% of the people pay that's millions of dollars hundreds of millions of dollars my mom paid the ransom and she got those files back there's no getting around it you either have to suck it up and deal they stole my files they're gone I've got to start from scratch or you pay the ransom because they're worth that much to you ransomware has become a thriving international criminal enterprise in the first three months of 2016 private individuals government agencies police departments and hospitals paid more than 209 million dollars just to get access to their own files and when serious amounts of money are involved so is the Secret Service good afternoon everybody let's get started now we have in town this week former President Clinton The Secret Service has a duly integrated mission it is best known for its protection of the President of the United States and its nation's highest elected officials on the other side of the coin is a Secret Service's investigative mission by statutory authority we investigate financial crimes and use of computers to target our nation's financial infrastructure and financial markets good morning today we're going to execute an arrest warrant in operation lunar eclipse we have credible information about a suspect who's been located in lower Manhattan the suspect is a white male between the ages of 40 and 50 it was last seen on First Avenue we're gonna execute three teams when you think of bank robbers do you probably think of masks guns and explosives but modern thieves know that the big money is no longer rooted in the physical world one of the largest bank heists in history was a cyber crime in 2013 high-end hackers stole 40 million dollars from thousands of ATMs around the world all in just a few hours the hackers infiltrated the computer system of a credit card processing company inside a bank within the country of Oman this is sort of a logistical Ocean's eleven for cybercrime the hackers found a vulnerability in the company's payment processing platform they removed the cash limits on hundreds of prepaid debit cards and then had them printed up in the three-dimensional world the cards were then distributed to a large network of so-called street cashiers thieves positioned at ATMs in two dozen countries all waiting to dip their cards grab the money and go there were hundreds of them waiting for a release of a PIN number and then carefully as clockwork they released the PIN number these individuals go to the ATM and remove funds this was a very large pyramid where you had the hackers at the top of the pyramid you had managers you had field operatives and finally you had that simultaneous cash out twenty-five countries on five continents and the cashing out over forty five million dollars within 12 hours the internet made this crime possible but remember not all cyber criminals are masterminds there were two individuals who were brazen enough to post on their social media accounts that they had in fact stolen a large amount of money and they proceeded to do a selfie holding a pile of cash and that was one of the methods utilized to to effect arrests in this case my cyber intrusions are a relatively new field probably over the last five to seven years it's really taken off and it's usually international in scope I can be emanating from Canada be coming from Eastern Europe Finland Russia Australia and everybody is using the same tool and that is the internet 2015 was a banner year for international cybercrime costing about 400 billion dollars worldwide but not all cyber criminals are in it for the money take the famous hack of Sony Pictures for example believed to be the work of the North Korean government North Korea yes it's a devastating hack crippling one of the world's most powerful entertainment studios nobody's quite sure why the North Koreans leaked thousands of embarrassing corporate emails employees Social Security numbers and even unreleased movies fury and the remake of Annie were posted on the illicit websites why did North Korea state actor go after Sony I don't think it was because they want to enter into the movie business one theory is that they were responding to a Sony film the interview a comedy that portrayed the assassination of their Dear Leader President Kim Jong hoon think about that for a second that means that a country attacked a company that's pretty crazy the North Korean regime has called the movie terrorism an act of war a moral attack on its leadership they thought it was a direct attack upon the North Korean regime they didn't like the movie they didn't like what it said did you just say dog the film was crude but the cyberattack was sophisticated they specifically targeted IT administrators and stole their credentials so they actually had administrator level privileges on the network to deploy their malware to every single system to me it was an incredibly important moment for the United States because it wasn't just a an attack on the company and its employees they'd actually gives you threats to movie theaters across this country people were suddenly afraid that to me is terrorism and that comes with some pretty serious consequences I think the United States government is trying to still figure out the rules of the road in terms of when they should step in to defend the property and the rights of the company so a state actor going after a Lockheed Martin for instance or some critical infrastructure owned in private hands if it's against our health care insurance owned by the private sector if it's the financial sector where I have my money and I can't retrieve it out of an ATM I mean at some point and we're trying to figure out when this line is when does hacking become an act of war so as you all may be aware recent reporting suggests that Air Force Space Command was hacked we don't know much we know there was a grave breach we believe that the route of ingress actually came from a subcontractor part of the defense industrial base we're not sure what they absconded with at this point but we do believe that our GPS systems have been compromised okay at this point these issues of national network security are at an enormous scale what does the security that's going to take care of locking nuclear missiles and warheads what is the security that's going to take care of the power grid or the GPS systems these are very vital questions and the consequences of being wrong are extreme here at West Point instructors like Maj Shawn Lonergan are exploring those questions intensely as they train our next generation soldiers to be cyber warriors the United States has enjoyed ever since our founding a lot of security we've had friendly neighbors to our north in our south and our two best allies the Pacific and the Atlantic typically keep us safe but now cyber is the one domain of warfare where we face near competitors someone abroad that can reach out and attack the US homeland and that's a giant concern for us do you think we could give the civilian sector access to the military-grade GPS I think it's worth addressing if our satellite-based Global Positioning System really were hacked as in this exercise you'd be surprised just how far-reaching the consequences would be take GPS away there's no more target tracking there's no more guided missiles but the largest impact would be agriculture they're using computers with GPS to drive combines and water and harvest and if you take GPS out of that equation and those machines can't navigate anymore we'd lose billions of dollars so what happens if we hold Pakistan responsible even if they're actually not the culprit one of the big things in cyber crime and cyber warfare is attribution it's one thing if you rob a bank and there's a picture of you going through the bank and we have a pretty good idea you just robbed the bank but if you're attacked by another nation in cyberspace and you can't even figure out who attacked you as a matter of national policy what do you do about that it's a new kind of warfare in the old days countries needed long-range missiles to reach us now they can do an awful lot of damage with not much more than a keyboard we know that this country's infrastructure is being probed to thumb but not just our infrastructure I think that we are seeing more and more these persistent threats right the hacktivists that the criminals their state actors we don't even know oftentimes what they want to achieve by them in 2016 the Defense Department allocated 5.5 billion dollars to cyber operations with a large percentage dedicated to the US Cyber Command but ironically one of our biggest leaps in cyber defense dates back to a horrifyingly low-tech attack [Applause] there are good reasons for having a strong intelligence collection capability within any country right you want to be able to hunt down people who are actually suspected of serious wrongdoing who are buying bomb-making materials we're trying to launch nuclear programs things that are very destabilizing and dangerous on that scale it was former NSA contractor Edward Snowden who first revealed how a program designed to find terrorists overseas was massively and secretly expanded after 9/11 to spy on American citizens I worked at the NSA I worked directly with the tools of mass surveillance in my last position in Hawaii I could see the world's Internet traffic I sitting my desk I could type in any name sort of any phone number and pull up the records associated with that traffic now there are some policy restrictions on how this is supposed to be used they say to target an American for example I should get warrants before I do it but technically it's already in the system just waiting to be looked at of course the NSA had a lot of help and the tracking capability was already built into the internet companies like Apple Google Microsoft and Facebook are happily collecting storing and selling data about their users that's us you know a lot of people are worried about government agency spying on them but they don't seem to be worried about Google or Beatty who are handling their data minute by minute and in fact can do pretty much whatever they want with it you have to realize then when you're using the Internet the byproduct of your daily activities the modern world are producing records and women you connect Google when you connect Facebook when you connect with government when you connect health insurance when you connect your purchase records on amazon.com they comprised perfect records of private lives in a way that's never existed previously in the history of the world what it's really opened is a culture of routine surveillance but by having it creep up on us and by having it be the consumer bargain we end up responding with a shrug Hey Facebook's listening to us – maybe Apple's listening to me through my iPhone right now I simply expect to be listened to we've all become like tag bears we put the radio collar on ourselves it's called a smartphone now this tracks us as efficiently as any radio collar you could wear around your neck so we are unwitting co-conspirators in our own loss of privacy lots of companies have figured out how to make money from all the data we've given up about ourselves our habits what we're interested in personal information that's valuable to advertisers one company has figured out that there's some very personal information yet to be mined and monetized hello hey how's it going Derek me too it's good name yeah so can I get a badge from you sure what do you call this this is called the sociometric badge it's like your company ID badge with embedded sensors in it and it allows us to monitor how everybody interacts with each other throughout organization humanize is a boston-based startup that's taken tracking technology to a new level and to a new location the workplace really we're collecting all the data that matters around human interaction most companies collect a lot of data about their customers but if I ask company you know how much does your engineering team talk to your sales team they actually have no idea we have two microphones on the badge one on the top one on the front they don't record what you say but in real-time we're doing the voice processing right now for example it's capturing the percentage of time that I talk my tone of voice how loud I speak the idea that if I started to speak a little bit more quickly that indicates something about our conversation we also have proximity information if you're wearing it bad so you are right now I can tell that I'm talking to you I can also tell where I am within the office we have a motion sensor on here as well same as in your cell phone but really the idea is to figure out if I have two teams for example that need to talk a lot to each other where does that happen and how can I use that to change the way that people collaborate the badge captures some four gigabytes of data about its wearer each day and when corporations sign up with human eyes they're buying the ability to monitor their employees to a stunningly detailed degree all right so these are two different posture sensors and we've got some very interesting things right here what were you doing around 324 to like 3:30 I was possibly sitting in a chair and reading something from my phone okay so especially we can we can see that that there's clearly this 10 minute period of time where you're in your own world there and I think what's important here is not to say look at these specific behaviors because we don't show this kind of data to to anyone even our customers but you know having this specific level of granularity across thousands or hundreds of thousands of people you start to think about the sort of things you can actually learn at that scale about what actually goes on at a company this would have been ludicrous 50 years ago the notion that we were constantly being surveilled this was the sort of thing that Orwell could write a book about and we would be shocked about humanise analyzes the cumulative information of their clients entire workforce so they can see the big picture but the data they collect is so specific so individual and personal it's a little tough to get used to do you think in 3 to 4 years you expect all ID badges to be like this oh yeah no I expect that's in three to four years the majority of ID badges will have these sensors but the question is what you do with the data humanise insists that the employee data they collect must remain anonymous but it does make you think about the capability of this technology I mean the key is trust do you trust your employer not to spy on you because they certainly can if they want to in the u.s. at least employers can read your emails log your keystrokes film you on closed-circuit TV or even your webcam for now most employees are just going along with it but some are pushing back I was a district sales manager for inner max it's a company that does Mya transfers between the states in South America my territory included from central California all the way to the coast of California and then all the way up to Santa Cruz so it's quite a bit to cover the company wanted to implement any program where they had an app downloaded onto the iPhones and this app was supposed to track every where we were at to the very smallest detail using her iPhones built-in GPS the app track Myrna wherever she went and kept track of how long she stayed in one place her employers even knew how fast she was driving and she wasn't allowed to turn it off they were monitoring all the time so I felt exposed all the time I never said no to office hours or work hours but clearly you're tracking this not only are you tracking it but you're recording it and so why are you keeping this data how much do you have on me and what are you gonna do with it all those things were just scary so myself and another co-worker decided not to use this app now we're immediately terminated Myrna filed a lawsuit against her employer I was surprised by the brazenness that occurred here I'm not surprised that an employer would try to track its employees and we know from past experience that our employers take a lot of liberties with our privacy rights and they tell us sometimes on our way in the door you're on our time you're on our machines we have a right to look at what you're doing but that was before the internet invaded our workplaces it's a very different scenario where you have people out in the field and especially when we're using the same device for work as well as for personal use where you're monitoring what they're doing on their breaks and after their hours that feels creepy to me and I think it felt creepy to Myrna so if our bosses and Google and our government are all trying to track us what are we supposed to do just throw out our smartphones and disconnect from the internet entirely let's face it that's never really going to happen so the other extreme is we could throw privacy completely out the window I think it's hard to imagine well we don't have to welcome to Songdo South Korea its developers call it a city of the future before 2001 all of this was underwater to build Songdo the planners first have to reclaim 1500 acres from the yellow seeds if you were expecting the flying autonomous cars and moving roadways well you won't find them here what you will find is the country's tallest skyscraper longest bridge and most importantly interconnectivity because Songdo was built literally from the ground up to be a smart city because it was built from scratch it was easy to integrate a network of sensors throughout the city and it's just as easy to forget that in Songdo you're being watched this is the integrated operations center here operators can monitor all the vital functions of the city everything from traffic weather conditions public transit and emergency response to billboards energy usage and even waste disposal this room is the city's brain traffic isn't just monitored from here it's actually controlled operators can control the timing of the lights and use signage to reroute the flow of traffic the system has a database for every license plate in the country it knows every car in Songdo security cameras throughout the city act like an omnipresent police force watching for and reporting suspicious activity in real time Brian Bailey is a product manager at Samsung by logistics he moved his family to Songdo back in 2014 we've lived several places Sango is the safest city that we have ever lived in we feel extremely safe with our children letting them go around the city without supervision and not have to worry about their safety there are clear advantages to living in a city of the future the Internet is everywhere so anywhere you go you can get very good Wi-Fi signal the plusses have it the subways have it all the the coffee shops and restaurants and stores have it so being able to access the Internet is very very convenient here but in Songdo privacy is pretty much non-existent you can't do anything without being on camera here I've heard that in that Center they can put like a little dot on you on the camera and they can follow you back for hours throughout some no for real they can follow you around for hours they can just write with facial recognition tock software figure out where you are and how do you feel about that we just feel spied and bruised yeah you feel spied on yeah just I'm walking down the street there are eyes everywhere you can't get away with anything for now not anymore camera knows how to direct a nun in a macaques a salary to children done enclosing kaki pana pandaren and a sow go camp on a mule nun continue packing and goes oh we never had no control ah never had the good taste I'll cheat Allah when you're in Songdo do you ever think about the cameras that are filming you don't really keep them on a we should be piranha Joe you're not teaching gilman there could you come in and we should come up Joe saying that you don't care about privacy because you've got nothing to hide it's no different than saying you don't care about freedom of speech because you've got nothing to say that's a fundamental misunderstanding of the nature of rights and what privacy really is what it's for privacy isn't about having something high privacy is about having something to protect and that's a free and open society that thing is Liberty one thing we learned from it word Snowden is that our government has a rapacious appetite for data including data about American citizens and that's the United States which is a sophisticated democracy people around the world have even less protection than that from their governments so what can happen if you forget that the little phone in your pocket is also a tracking device in 2014 protesters in Kiev found out after a clash with police demonstrators in the area received an ominous text message dear subscriber you have been registered as a participant in a mass disturbance so cellphones and surveillance cameras are clearly to be avoided if you don't want to be tracked but is there a way to avoid being tracked if you're on the Internet turns out there's a neat tool designed to do just that it's a special kind of browser called tor assuming someone doesn't know what is tor it's a solution to a problem that a lot of people don't know that they have on the Internet I was actually checking out the New York Times earlier so this is all of the stuff that has been loaded it's gone to somewhere called Z mote ads.com somebody called IMR or worldwide calm somebody called click tale dotnet all these people are getting a piece of my data all of these people are tracking me there's a lot of money in tracking regular people's web browsing and this is not really much regulated in the u.s. so how does the Torah solve this problem well tor uses a technology called Onion Routing where you bounce the traffic around through several different relay computers operated by volunteers all around the world Tory gets its name The Onion Router because it creates a number of layers between you and prying eyes that conceal your identity that's my computer in the center there when I click on a link my request travels from my machine to volunteer number ones machine somewhere else in the world he automatically sends the request to volunteer number two who can't see me and then her machine sends the request to the site I was trying to reach but that site and its tracking software can only see her they certainly can't see me I mean it's all that complexity which actually protects your privacy over here we can go to New York Times and we can see over here that our traffic has been relayed through one relay in Germany one relay in France another relay in France right out to the Internet so right now none of those websites are getting your information right instead they're getting information about the last relay site yes so what kind of people are using tor well we've got human rights volunteers and activists in different countries we have victims of domestic abuse who are trying to achieve some amount of personal communication security we've got regular people who don't want to be surveilled by different governments or by advertisers and crazy privacy advocates like me who really like the idea of not sharing more about ourselves than we have to Tory underscores the the nature of this conflict our society is having right now because you have to remember tor was funded by the government the Navy under wrote the development of tor because they realized that spies needed to communicate safely – and that they were at risk but there's a lot of people in the world where they are under repressive governments where they are trying to make social change that may be a I want those people to have the privacy they need to do the work that they do now by the way the follow-up to this is don't the terrorists use this and the answer is yeah they do but so do the activists the security of devices whether it's your computer whether it's your phone whether it's your washing machine is a binary state meaning there are only two possible choices it's either secure or it's not there's no option to make a device secure against bad guys but insecure against good guys all of us are secure or none of us are so here we are at the crossroads of internet security and freedom we don't mind Google tracking us but we don't want our government doing it and we know the internet can be hacked but that doesn't concern us enough to stop using it in fact we can't stop using it we're dependent on it addicted to it our finances relationships our work basically our whole lives are online but our virtual lives don't really live in the clouds or in cyberspace they live inside brick and mortar buildings like this one in lower Manhattan and once you see the miles and miles of cable and all the infrastructural hardware that our online lives have to travel through the internet seems less magical more physical and possibly more vulnerable when I look at the Internet I often like to stop chasing bits and instead plant your feet in a single spot and think about all the communications that are passing that spot it's interesting I mean 60 Hudson Street in New York is one of the most important Internet buildings in the world and it's a single building and so I can send a text message to Helsinki this afternoon and with a little bit of work and the right tools say okay it went through this building this building in this building and across this cable and then of course once you understand the path it took you recognized that that was a real physical path that went through real places on the map there are only 12 internet exchange points in the world as large as this one but there are hundreds of smaller ones distributed across the globe and according to the designers of the internet that distribution makes it safe or at least safer it has billions of pieces to it each one of which is independently operating and so there isn't any master switch turns this stuff off and that's a good thing it makes it resilient it means that nobody can threaten successfully to turn it all off because they can't my handle is Mudge I in the six individuals seated before you make up the hacker group known as the loft back in the 90s there was a security researcher Mudge who testified to Congress that he could take down the Internet in 30 minutes the last time I talked to him I think he said it's you know an hour now the Internet's absolutely at risk however the internet heals the Internet is no longer a thing right it's a combination of millions of things so if you were able to coordinate an attack against those systems you can impact it you could definitely break it for a bit but you're never gonna kill it nature might have something to say about that solar radiation can cripple electronic devices and in 1859 a solar superstorm bombarded the earth and played havoc with the 19th century's internet the Telegraph Network solar storms occur all the time but this one known as the Carrington event made history showers of sparks spewed out of Telegraph machines and messages burst into flames we had solar near misses in 20 12 13 and 14 so scientists feel that a second Carrington event is really only a matter of time only today our electronic dependence is thousands maybe millions of times greater and at the center of all that is the internet so what would really happen if it all suddenly went down it's 5:00 a.m. in New York City and for the past hour night owls have been noticing that Google is down by roughly 6:30 Amazon the New York Times and espn.com are dead Facebook goes down an hour by 8 a.m. the trains in New Delhi have all stopped and air-traffic control from Norway to the Mediterranean has been taken out hundreds of flights at 10:53 a.m. every traffic light in Manhattan turns green London reports that the medical records in 160 hospitals have been deleted whose last name begins with the letter M suddenly noticed that their bank accounts had been wiped clean across 12 different by 4:00 p.m. China has denied involvement as his Pakistan Iran was in the midst of denying it when suddenly the diplomatic phone lines went dead at 7:22 p.m. Eastern Time the lights in North America go out and they're not coming back on no electricity no subways no water on the roads masked gridlock the lines stretching for miles if the internet were taken out and it's there were ways that could happen the bizarre ways but the ways it could happen all financial systems would collapse our transportation systems would collapse the power system the water systems the natural gas lines the telecommunication systems I mean how do you think a city like New York City would be after not having power for six months which also means it doesn't have police communications and it doesn't have fire support and it doesn't have water how would people survive how many of us can make a fire with no matches I can I don't know my children's phone numbers right I mean that's crazy but my iphone knows my children's phone numbers you know when I was growing up we all knew you know 20 phone numbers of our friends and parents and relatives we're sort of outsourcing our memories into these devices and we're so dependent on them now and there's really no set there's no backup to the internet right if the if there was something that if there's a virus that went in and basically brought the Internet to its knees it's amazing how quickly civilization might be brought to its knees as well the good news is there's survivor library com it's an online library that covers everything we need to know to survive from embalming to Waggin building it's a survivalist stream only instead of guns and canned goods it's a stockpile of knowledge but the bad news it's on the Internet but even when SolarWinds and fearsome hacks aren't tearing it down even when the internet is functioning normally our precious information is still surprisingly fragile I mean remember these or this the same fate of obsolescence awaits all formats of storage media we use today we have another huge looming problem that we know about and that's the possibility that all that digital content won't be correctly interpreted 100 years from now because the software that knows what it means isn't running anymore and so this is another nightmare that needs to be dealt with the looming potential of a digital Dark Age the reality is obsolescence is always been around us it doesn't matter if it's about transportation doesn't matter it's about technology it happens when it comes to things like archival storage you as the custodian of something that you believe should be preserved for future generations need to be prepared to keep re copying it into the current media of the day that seems to have some longevity that's just life in the big city and is it frustrating and annoying constantly but sometimes the problems not technology sometimes it's just business as usual that causes precious information to disappear one thing we've discovered is the web is completely ephemeral that only lasts on the average of a hundred days before a page is either changed or deleted a hundred days sometimes it's inadvertent and oftens for commercial reasons when companies make a decision to just delete the past work that you've invested in putting onto their websites keeping old stuff alive is not easy so the goal of the Internet Archive is universal access to all knowledge how do we build a worldwide web that is reliable and isn't dependent on one piece of hardware being up or one company staying alive the internet archive's signature invention is the wayback machine which takes snapshots of websites at regular intervals so that if content changes or a company goes out of business that material isn't lost forever right now websites are preserved using a complicated algorithm but the internet archive's ultimate goal is for all websites to be represented when we first started collecting the world wide web was probably only about 30 million pages now we collect about a billion pages every week our total collection is about 500 billion pages that are in the wayback machine archive employees in San Francisco and around the world are constantly digitizing print materials videos games and operating systems all kinds of ephemera everyone involved with the Internet Archive project has at least one thing in common they're counting on a future the server's just in this room are about 5 petabytes of data and that's the primary copy of the Internet Archive and I've been designing supercomputers my whole career the great little thing about these is the lights actually means something every time a light blinks is somebody uploading something or downloading something from the Internet Archive those lights signify our hopes for a future that includes all our knowledge and all our frailties all wrapped up in humankind's most versatile and most awe-inspiring invention when you think about it our whole civilization rests on this infrastructure from the moment you get up in the morning to the moment you go to sleep at night from the moment you're born to the moment you die and everything in between I think it's a quarter of a century on from the first commercial website it's time to have a hard conversation have we achieved what we thought we'd achieve where are we or do we need some course corrections I'm a huge optimist I think 25 and 50 years from now when we're having these conversations at the 50th and the 75th and 100th anniversary of the commercial Internet we will say that we have built a society hopefully that brings out the best in our value structure right now the Internet is a tool a very powerful tool but a tool nonetheless and one that we're still trying to figure out how to use best and like any tool it depends on who's using it and why since there will always be good guys and bad guys we'll have to stay vigilant but there's more I think that you know if you look at those exponential growth curves I think we're at one of those moments where it's like it's about to curve upwards and it's about to go like that you know technology is a living breathing thing it's almost like technology has wants and me it's just like biology does so it is an organism it is an extension of us some very smart people have warned that any moment now the internet could evolve could become something more than just a tool perhaps an intelligence capable of using its own tools but where would that leave us you know I worry a lot about just pure humanity now in the way these technologies are emerging and at the rate at which they're emerging and what you know what our role is with these these systems and machines that are that are surrounding us and it's not clear that we will be the masters of our destiny any longer we're in an amazing time to be alive today we have about 14 billion connected devices you know my phone your TV my Tesla car all these things are connected devices they're 14 billion of them we're gonna be going from 14 billion to a hundred billion by 2020 we're entering towards a world eventually that everything is being imaged and recorded and we're gonna be able to know it anything we want anytime we want anywhere we want this is our trillion sensor economy and then how you mind that data and what questions you ask of that data is what's gonna really change the way we we live our lives I am NOT dumb enough to try to make predictions about the Internet over the next 10 to 20 years I will assume that the internet will be humid quittez I will assume that it will be noisy and rowdy I will assume that it will be a mix of corporate controlled and fiercely independent and it will be complicated and a blessing and a curse at the same time well given how fast technology moves and how quickly we adapt to it I don't think we're gonna have to wait very long to find out so don't blink